Gallstones

Gallstones are most common in women over the age of 40, especially with a positive family history.

Presentation: if symptomatic, patients often complain of right upper abdominal pain. Fever (temperature greater than 100.4 F) is present in the setting of infection
Diagnosis: ultrasound of the abdomen will identify stones in the gallbladder

Type of gallstones 
Cholesterol: most common type of stone in the US
Black pigmented stones: often seen in patients with sickle cell or chronic liver disease
Brown pigmented stones: seen with biliary infection, low protein diet

Treatment: if gallstones are found incidentally on imaging without associated symptoms or evidence of blockage, no intervention is recommended. However if symptomatic or there is infection present, surgical removal of the gallbladder (cholecystectomy) is necessary.

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